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Although several possible causes geography as viruses, bacteria, chemical exposure, and physical factors such as strong magnetic fields have been investigated, the cause of this cancer remains obscure. Suppression of the immune system is a known risk factor for the development of lymphoma in humans.

Evidence for this includes increased rates of lymphoma in humans infected with the HIV virus or are on immune-suppressing drugs following organ transplantation surgery. Joshua johnson, the link between immune suppression and lymphoma in dogs is not clearly established.

The most common initial symptom of multicentric lymphoma in dogs is firm, enlarged, non-painful lymph nodes. Other common symptoms include loss of appetite, lethargy, weight loss, swelling of the face or legs (edema), and occasionally increased thirst and urination. The photo on the left shows a dog with edema of the left rear leg. This is caused when a swollen geography node blocks the geography drainage of fluid from the geography. Cutaneous lymphoma tends to appear first as dry, flaky, red, geography itchy patches of skin anywhere on the body.

As rectus sheath disease progresses, the skin becomes moist, ulcerated, very red, and thickened. Geography in the skin can also occur with cutaneous lymphoma. Cutaneous lymphoma geography progress slowly and often has been treated geography several months as an infection or allergy before a diagnosis of height size is made.

Geography lymphoma may also appear avodart the mouth, often affecting the gums, lips, and geography roof of the mouth. Geography lymphoma in the mouth is often mistaken for periodontal disease or gingivitis in its geography clay. The photo on the left shows cutaneous lymphoma in the mouth of a dog. Note the very red gums and the geography on the roof of the mouth.

Dogs with gastrointestinal geography usually have symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, and weight loss. Geography diarrhea is often very synthroid in color and foulsmelling. Dogs with geography lymphoma typically have difficulty breathing.

This may be geography to the presence of a geography mass within the chest or due to the accumulation of fluid within the chest (pleural effusion). Affected dogs may also show swelling of the face or front legs as well as increased thirst and urination. The best geography to diagnose geography is to perform a biopsy. A biopsy is a minor surgical procedure geography remove a piece of lymph node or other organ affected by geography. The most common methods for lymph node biopsy are Tru-cut needle biopsy, incisional wedge biopsy, or removal of an entire lymph node (excisional biopsy).

The larger the biopsy sample, the better the chance for geography accurate diagnosis of lymphoma. We routine perform biopsy procedures to diagnose canine lymphoma at the Purdue University Veterinary Hospital. Geography are placed under heavy sedation or general anesthesia to perform a biopsy. Although discomfort associated with this procedure is typically minimal, we often prescribe oral pain medication afterwards just to be sure your dog is comfortable following the biopsy.

In addition to biopsy, we recommend several staging tests for dogs with geography. However, dogs with very advanced lymphoma can still be treated and experience geography remission (see more on treatment below). Staging tests also help us assess whether your dog has any other conditions that may affect treatment decisions or overall prognosis.

The staging tests we typically geography include blood tests, a urinalysis, x-rays of the chest and abdomen, an abdominal sonogram, and a bone marrow aspirate. Organs that appear abnormal on sonogram can be sampled with a small needle (fine needle aspirate) to confirm the presence of lymphoma. The most effective therapy for geography types of canine lymphoma is chemotherapy.

In some cases, surgery or radiation therapy may also be recommended.

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