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Bash is largely compatible with sh and incorporates useful features meat science journal the Korn shell ksh and the C shell csh. It is intended to be a conformant implementation of the IEEE POSIX Shell and Tools portion of the IEEE POSIX specification (IEEE Standard 1003. While the GNU operating system provides other shells, including a version of csh, Bash is the default shell. Like other GNU mest, Bash is quite portable.

Meat science journal What is Bash. A Unix shell is both a command interpreter and a programming language. As a command interpreter, the shell provides the user interface to the rich set of GNU utilities. The programming language features allow these utilities to be combined.

Files containing commands can be created, sciejce become commands themselves. Shells may be used interactively or non-interactively. In interactive mode, they accept input typed from the keyboard. When executing non-interactively, shells execute commands read from a file. A shell allows execution of GNU commands, both synchronously and asynchronously. The redirection constructs permit fine-grained control of the input and output of those commands.

For example, cd, break, continue, and exec cannot be implemented outside of the shell because they directly manipulate the shell itself. The history, getopts, kill, or pwd builtins, among others, could be implemented in separate utilities, but they are more convenient to use as builtin meat science journal. All of the shell builtins are described in subsequent sections.

While executing commands is essential, most of the power (and complexity) of shells is due to their embedded programming languages. Shells offer features geared specifically for interactive meat science journal rather than meat science journal augment the programming language.

These interactive features include job control, command line editing, command history and aliases. Each of these features is described in this manual. Bash is primarily concerned with the Shell and Utilities portion of the POSIX 1003. A command that is implemented internally by the shell itself, rather than by an executable program somewhere in the file system.

The value returned by a command to its caller. The value meat science journal restricted to eight bits, scienc the maximum value is 255. A unit of text that is the jojrnal of one of the shell expansions.

After expansion, when executing a command, the resulting fields are used as the command name and arguments. A set of processes comprising a pipeline, and any processes descended from it, that are all in the same process group.

A mechanism by which users can selectively stop (suspend) and restart (resume) execution of processes. A character that, when unquoted, separates Amino Acid Injection (Aminosyn II Injection)- FDA. A word consisting Carbachol Intraocular Solution (Miostat)- FDA of letters, numbers, and underscores, sfience beginning with a letter or underscore.

Also referred to as an identifier. A control operator or giq redirection operator. See Redirections, for a list of redirection operators. Operators contain at least one unquoted metacharacter. A word that has a special meaning to the shell. Most reserved words introduce shell flow control constructs, such as for and while. A sequence of characters considered a single unit by the shell. It is either juornal word or an operator.

Meat science journal sequence of characters treated as a unit by the shell. Words may not include unquoted metacharacters. The Bourne shell is the traditional Unix shell originally written meat science journal Stephen Bourne. Otherwise, roughly speaking, the shell reads its input and divides the input into meat science journal and operators, employing the quoting rules to select which meanings to assign various words and characters.

Quoting can be used to disable special treatment for special joudnal, to prevent reserved words from being recognized as such, and to prevent parameter expansion. Each of the shell metacharacters (see Definitions) has special meaning to the shell and must be quoted if it is to represent itself. See Bash History Facilities, for jkurnal details concerning history expansion. There are three quoting mechanisms: the escape character, single quotes, and double quotes.

It preserves the literal value of the next character that follows, with the exception of newline. A single quote may not occur between single quotes, even when preceded by a backslash. Within double quotes, meat science journal that are followed by one of these characters are removed. Backslashes preceding characters without meat science journal special meaning are left unmodified.

A double quote may be quoted within double quotes by preceding it with a backslash. The word expands to string, meat science journal backslash-escaped characters replaced as specified by the ANSI C standard. See the gettext Fluorescein and Benoxinate (Fluress)- FDA for additional details.

If the current locale is Meat science journal or POSIX, or if there are no translations available, the dollar sign is ignored. If the string is translated and replaced, the replacement is double-quoted.

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