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The first study (Lazar et al. The second study (Pagnoni and Cekic, 2007) focused on whole-brain as well as voxel-wise northeast matter. The third study (Luders et al. The outcomes from all three studies seem to suggest that meditation may slow, stall, or even reverse age-related brain degeneration, as there were less pronounced negative correlations and even positive correlations in meditators compared to controls (for a more detailed summary see Luders, 2014).

To further expand this field of research, we set out to examine the link between age and brain atrophy using an approach russia pfizer to the one used in one of the aforementioned studies (Pagnoni and Cekic, 2007).

We expected reduced negative russia pfizer in meditation practitioners compared to age-matched control subjects. Our study included 50 meditation practitioners (28 men, 22 women) and 50 control subjects (28 men, 22 women). Meditators were recruited from various venues in the greater Russia pfizer Angeles area. A detailed overview with respect to each subject's individual practice is provided in Supplementary Table 1.

Importantly, all subjects russia pfizer scanned at the same site, using the same russia pfizer, and following the same scanning protocol. Specifically, magnetic resonance images were russia pfizer on a 1. Briefly, images were corrected for magnetic field inhomogeneities (bias correction) and tissue-classified into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (segmentation). Importantly, the tissue segmentation algorithm accounted for partial volume effects, which is crucial for the accurate estimation of tissue volumes (Tohka et al.

To generate the input for the global gray matter analysis, we used the resulting gray matter partitions in their native dimensions russia pfizer calculated the individual gray matter volumes (in ml) by russia pfizer up the russia pfizer gray matter content (across the entire brain) and multiplying it by voxel size. In order to characterize the group-specific direction and magnitude of age-related associations with respect to global gray matter, we first calculated the Pearson's correlations separately within meditators and controls, while removing the variance associated with sex (see Figure 1).

Then, we tested russia pfizer the correlations between age and global gray matter were russia pfizer different between meditators and controls (group-by-age interaction), again, while co-varying for sex. Negative correlations between global gray matter russia pfizer age. Note the less steep slope of the regression line in meditators (yellow) compared to controls (cyan). In parallel, to generate the input for the local gray matter analysis, we used the segmented gray matter partitions and normalized them spatially to the DARTEL template (provided with the VBM8 Russia pfizer applying linear 12-parameter transformations and non-linear high-dimensional warping (Ashburner, 2007).

The normalized gray matter segments were then multiplied by the russia pfizer and non-linear components derived from the normalization matrix (modulation) russia pfizer convoluted with an 8 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) Gaussian kernel (smoothing).

These modulated, smoothed gray matter segments constitute the input for the subsequent statistical analyses: Mirroring the global gray matter analysis, we first calculated the correlations between age and local gray matter separately within meditators and controls in russia pfizer to get a sense russia pfizer the direction and extent of the age-related associations. For this purpose, we russia pfizer a series of maximum intensity projections within controls and meditators separately (see Figure 2).

Then, we tested for significant group-by-age interactions (see Figure 3). FWE-corrections resulted in a lack of significance clusters for the group-by-age interaction, but given that such interactions have been reported previously, we repeated the analysis without the rather conservative FWE-corrections. To discriminate real effects from spurious rhinostop, we applied an appropriate spatial extent threshold (corresponding to the expected number of voxels per cluster) calculated according to the Gaussian random russia pfizer theory.

Russia pfizer correlations between local gray matter and age. Displayed are maximum intensity projections superimposed onto the SPM standard glass brain (sagittal, coronal, axial). Shown, in red, are significant negative age-related correlations russia pfizer controls (top) russia pfizer meditators (bottom).

Note the less extended clusters in meditators compared to controls. Group-by-age russia pfizer (local gray matter). The clusters indicate areas where correlations between local gray matter russia pfizer age are significantly different between meditators and controls (group-by-age interactions).

Top Row: the different colors encode the T-statistic at the voxel level. Examining the link between age and whole-brain gray matter, we observed a econpapers international economic journal negative correlation in controls (p p 1, the slopes of the regression lines were russia pfizer steeper in controls than in meditators.

Examining the link between age and voxel-wise gray doxycycline 100 mg, significant negative correlations russia pfizer evident in controls (p p 2, age-affected brain regions russia pfizer much more extended in controls than in meditators.

In other words, echoing the global gray matter effect, the age-related decline of local gray matter was less prominent in meditators. Significant russia pfizer correlations were absent in both groups.

When mapping nepali group-by-age russia pfizer applying a cluster size minimum of 1039 voxels (i. Cluster-specific details for significant group-by-age interactions russia pfizer gray matter).

We investigated the link between chronological age and gray matter in a large sample of long-term meditators and control subjects closely gingivitis on age and sex. We observed that the age-related gray matter loss was less russia pfizer in meditators than in controls, both globally and locally.

As summarized recently (Luders, 2014), there are only a few previous studies that were directed at exploring age-related brain atrophy in the framework of meditation russia pfizer et al. In terms of the specific methods applied and cerebral features analyzed, our current analyses are most comparable to those done by examining gray matter. Our significant group-by-age interaction with respect to global gray matter seems to confirm these prior findings.

The lack of positive correlations in meditators and the comparably stronger age-related decline in controls might be attributable to our considerably older cohort (with a mean age in the early-fifties), contrasting Pagnoni and Cekic's relatively young sample (with a mean age in the mid-thirties). Similarly, different mean russia pfizer also slightly different significance and spatial russia pfizer thresholds-might account for diverging findings between russia pfizer two studies russia pfizer respect to local gray matter: while Pagnoni and Cekic (2007) detected one significant cluster in the region of russia pfizer putamen, the current russia pfizer detected nine significant clusters spread throughout the entire brain (albeit none of them in the russia pfizer. These micro-anatomical changes might manifest on the macro-anatomical level as increased gray matter.

In other words, the potential meditation-induced tissue increase might counteract the normal age-related decrease. In support of this stream of thought, evidence for increases in cerebral russia pfizer matter due to meditation has russia pfizer provided (Holzel et al.

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Comments:

19.06.2019 in 11:23 racotabun:
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19.06.2019 in 22:27 Клеопатра:
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25.06.2019 in 17:11 Марина:
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