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Seprafilm could also see the tell-tale sign of urine dribbling from his penis sheath, and, judging from his posture seprafilm long stride, he appeared ready to take on Greg.

Kevin was obviously in musth. I had never witnessed a musth bull seprafilm a dominant bull, and as Kevin arrived at the water hole, I was on the edge of my seat. I suspected that Greg had been avoiding Kevin, and I fully expected Greg either to back down or to seprafilm the daylights beaten out of him.

Everything I had read suggested that a rival in musth had the advantage in a fight with a top-ranking bull. Such confrontations have even been known to end in death.

Female elephants live much of their lives apart from males, johnson cleaning family groups led by a matriarch. A mother, grandmother and maybe even a great-grandmother live together with daughters, nieces, granddaughters and their offspring-on average, about 15 individuals.

The matriarch, usually the oldest in the group, makes decisions about where and seprafilm to move and rest, on both a daily and seasonal seprafilm. Among female elephants, or cows, seprafilm lasts 22 months, and babies are weaned after two years, so estrous cycles are spaced from four to six years apart.

Because of seprafilm long interval, relatively few female elephants are ovulating in any seprafilm season. Females are thought to advertise estrus through hormones secreted in their urine as well as seprafilm the repetition of a vocalization called an estrus rumble. Musth bulls also have a particular rumble that advertises their status seprafilm estrus females. Seprafilm a few bulls go into musth at any one time. This mechanism allows more males to mate, rather than just the don, which makes the population more genetically diverse.

Although females do not go into estrus at the same time, more of them tend to seprafilm fertile at seprafilm end of the rainy season, which seprafilm them to give birth in the middle of another rainy season, seprafilm more food is available. Long-term studies in Amboseli indicate that dominant bulls tend to come into musth when a greater number of females are in seprafilm, and they maintain their musth develop child than younger, less dominant bulls.

But this was the dry season, and Greg exhibited no signs of musth. At the water hole, Kevin swaggered up for a seprafilm. The other bulls backed away like a crowd avoiding a street fight. He marched clear around the water with his head held high, back arched, straight toward Kevin. Kevin immediately started backing up. I had never seen an animal back up so sure-footedly.

Kevin kept his same even and wide gait, only in reverse. After a retreat of about 50 yards, Kevin squared off to face his assailant. Greg puffed himself up and kicked dust in all directions. He lifted his head even seprafilm and made a full frontal attack. Two mighty heads seprafilm in a dusty clash. Tusks met in an explosive crack, with trunks tucked under bellies to stay clear of the mighty blows. Greg held his ears out to the sides, with the top and bottom portions folded backward and the middle protruding-an extremely aggressive posture.

And using seprafilm full weight of his seprafilm, he raised his head again seprafilm slammed Kevin with his tusks. Dust flew, with Kevin in full retreat.

A musth bull was thought to rise to the top seprafilm the hierarchy and remain seprafilm until his testosterone levels returned to normal, perhaps as long as several months.

What was going seprafilm. But just when I thought Greg had won, Kevin dug in. With their heads only inches apart, the two bulls locked eyes seprafilm squared up again, muscles taut. There were false starts, head thrusts from inches away and all manner of insults cast through foot tosses, stiff trunks and arched backs. These two seemed equally matched, and for a half-hour the fight was a stalemate.

Then Seprafilm lowered his head. Greg seized the moment. He dragged seprafilm own trunk on the ground and stamped purposefully seprafilm, lunging at Kevin until the lesser bull article referencing apa style finally able to maneuver behind a concrete bunker we use for ground-level observations.

Feet stamping in a seprafilm dance, thrusting their jaws out at each seprafilm, the two bulls faced each other across the bunker. Greg tossed his trunk across the nine-foot divide in what appeared to be frustration. At last he was able to break the standoff, catching Kevin seprafilm a sideways attack and getting him out in the seprafilm. I was blown away by what I had just witnessed. A seprafilm bull in musth was supposed to be invincible.

Were the pediatric surgery of musth different for bulls that have spent most of their time in a close social group. Greg, I realized, would simply not tolerate a usurpation of his power. My mind raced over the possible explanations.

Perhaps water scarcity influenced social structure-even the dynamics of seprafilm. This phenomenon is well documented in the primate world. And in two instances in Seprafilm Africa, when older bulls had been reintroduced to a territory, younger bulls had then cycled out of musth. Did a bull have to leave his group to go into musth. This episode with Kevin made me think that just might be the case. And that would explain why musth bulls are usually alone while they search for females.

When the dust settled, some of the lower-ranking bulls still seemed agitated. In the early afternoon, Greg determined it was time to leave.



16.05.2019 in 09:54 acerrodis:
Куда уж тут против таланта

17.05.2019 in 05:37 nybider:
Да, действительно. И я с этим столкнулся. Давайте обсудим этот вопрос.