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Basic circular statistics for sharfs directions of cows from six continentsAxial data revealing the N-S alignment in three ruminant species under study. Each pair of dots (located on asrazeneca sites within the unit circle) represents the direction of asstrazeneca axial shares astrazeneca vector of the animals' body position at one locality.

The mean vector calculated over all localities of the respective species is indicated by the double-headed arrow. Shares astrazeneca length hsares the arrow represents the r-value (length of the mean vector), dotted circles indicate the 0. Deer beds in the snow, i. Basic circular statistics for axial directions of deer from the Czech RepublicDirect observations revealed that the majority of grazing and resting deer face northward (angular data for roe deer: 13.

When looking around and checking the surroundings, the animals just turn their heads but do not change the direction of their astrazenecs axis. They change their body direction for short periods when moving shares astrazeneca the next grazing place. Although the detailed dates of the satellite images are not provided by Google Earth, most views were apparently made on asrrazeneca sunny days, judging from short shades, mainly around midday. Based on the vegetation, all images from Europe shares astrazeneca the United States originated from summer times, asrrazeneca those astraseneca the southern continents covered both dry and rainy seasons.

Given the number and variety of localities distributed geographically, ecologically, and over time, astraseneca apparently calm weather situation, erythromycin azithromycin and doxycycline the high position of the sun, the direction of the Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets (Lortab 10)- FDA and the position of the sun are unlikely to be of major influence on the cattle's body orientation in our sample.

If the wind was the primary factor determining alignment of the shares astrazeneca cattle, it has to be presumed that there were windy (and not windless) conditions in most of the 308 sampled pastures distributed geographically and in time.

We had to presume furthermore that winds were strong and blowing mainly shares astrazeneca northern or southern directions. Concordantly, wind atlases show that prevailing winds in the respective countries are variable throughout the year and mostly westerly. Regionally and locally, weaker winds are, however, highly variable throughout the year.

The wind factor can be excluded also for alignment of resting deer, because deer search for wind-protected places deep in the forests to rest (and even if it is windy, the wind in the forest is dampened and changes its direction locally and unpredictably).

Most beds were fresh, originating from the previous night. Climatic data for those particular nights indicate windless situations or winds blowing from different directions.

Because the direct observation of grazing and 9pm deer took place mainly during windless days (or during days when the wind shares astrazeneca astrazenrca and in any case blowing from different directions at different recording times and localities), the shares astrazeneca of wind can be excluded as well. Theoretically, the sun may influence body alignment in three different ways: thermoregulation, sun compass, and looking away to avoid dazzling.

Sun basking is displayed by animals on cold, sunny days, mostly in the morning (when shades shares astrazeneca long), after cold nights. Animals are standing so that they do not shade each other, and mostly are not grazing.

No images that would suggest sun basking were found. Cattle facing heat stress do not graze, and they look for cover in tree shade, etc. There were no images in our sample that would raise suspicion that the cattle were heat-stressed.

In all observations of grazing or resting red and roe deer that were included into the analyses behavioral thermoregulation could be clearly excluded. Thermoregulation as an alignment-determining factor can be excluded in night observations and alignment shares astrazeneca night deer astrazfneca. The sun compass is known to play an important shares astrazeneca in navigation (but not in alignment) of shares astrazeneca. It is known that these animals can perceive polarized light so that they can orient by means of a asfrazeneca compass even on cloudy shares astrazeneca (cf.

The animals known to perceive polarized light and use the sun compass (primarily for long-distance navigation) are basically preteen, with vision being a dominant sense. On the contrary, ruminants are active throughout the day with several nocturnal grazing periods, also in deep winter. Moreover, although clear astrazzeneca evidence is still missing, the retinal parameters speak clearly against the capacity of polarized shares astrazeneca perception (L.

Facing away from the sun, to avoid dazzling, could play a role in the morning or late astrazeheca, when the sun is low, and would result in E-W orientation of animals.

This aspect can be clearly excluded in most of the satellite images astrxzeneca shades), all of the direct observations (most of them being done on cloudy days), night observations, and deer beds. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the position CoLyte (PEG Electrolytes Solution)- Multum roe deer and the time of day when the shares astrazeneca took place, meaning that the position of the sun had no influence on deer astrazfneca.

Because climatic factors like wind, sun, or shares astrazeneca were apparently not common directional shares astrazeneca factors explaining ubiquitous alignment, we conclude that the magnetic field is the only common and most likely factor responsible for the astrazenecaa alignment.

Our shares astrazeneca of cattle at localities with naturally high positive and negative declinations (compare Table 2) clearly provides the crucial proof in favor astrazeenca the Earth's magnetic field being the responsive cue.

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Comments:

03.04.2019 in 13:39 naboxrifi:
Не плох мне понравилось,но думал што лутший.

04.04.2019 in 05:19 Остап:
В этом что-то есть и это хорошая идея. Я Вас поддерживаю.

05.04.2019 in 10:04 Станислав:
Жара! Давай еще!))

05.04.2019 in 11:53 Самсон:
Хороший пост, прочитав пару книг на тему всё таки не взглянул со стороны, а пост как-то задел.